child custody statistics by gender ukchild custody statistics by gender uk

Of the sentenced prison population, sentences can be divided into two broad groups: determinate sentences which are for a fixed period, and indeterminate sentences (these include life sentences and indeterminate sentences for public protection IPPs). News stories, speeches, letters and notices, Reports, analysis and official statistics, Data, Freedom of Information releases and corporate reports. Cautions issued[footnote 33][footnote 34] The custody rate for this offence was lower for female offenders (19%) than for males (26%). Male children reported a significantly higher proportion of being a victim of a CSEW crime at 9.0%, compared to 4.0% of females[footnote 7][footnote 8]. Data are also provided on a trend basis dating back to 2000 to 2001 and 2005 to 2006 onwards for more detailed data. In this section, all analysis looks at those in the matched offender cohort who were eligible for Free School Meals (FSM) and/or had Special Education Needs (SEN), at any point during KS4. However, these data have been extracted from large administrative and survey data systems generated by the courts, police forces and other agencies. Receipt of subsequent information which alters our understanding of previous periods (for example late recording on one of the administrative IT systems used operationally). There are still more single moms raising children, but it's likely inaccurate that the court is biased toward granting women custody. As at 30 June 2019, 15% of females and 6% of males were serving sentences of less than 12 months. , See technical guide for more information on PNDs. Among children aged 6 and under, only 18 percent were in the sole custody of their fathers or in joint custody. The study relied solely on electronically available published opinions in child custody cases (n = 4,338). It considers how these experiences have changed over time and how they contrast to the typical experiences of males. This varies by offence type, females accounted for a higher proportion of prosecutions for summary offences (29%) than indictable offences (14%). A contributing factor is the greater availability of females when an enforcement officer visits the home[footnote 116]. in the year ending March 2019, 27.8% of people in youth custody were Black - more than double the percentage in the year ending March 2006 (12.5%) White people made up around half (50.6%) of young people in . Youth custody data - February 2014 published. In 2019, the number of individuals who self-harmed per 1,000 prisoners was 335 for females and 148 for males. Intimate violence refers to a range of physical and non-physical abuse including domestic abuse, sexual assault and stalking. An oral report is usually completed within 24 hours of conviction where a limited amount of information is required by the sentencing court. Full details on data limitations and conclusion can be found in the technical guide. The overall ACSL (where sex is known) has been increasing over the last 5 years, from 16.3 months in 2015 to 19.0 months in 2019. The remains . Higher proportions of females in contact with liaison and diversion services were suspected as having issues with alcohol misuse, had financial needs and were abuse victims. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. In the year ending March 2020 (referred to as 2019/20 throughout), the proportion of adults who were victim of a CSEW crime (excluding fraud and computer misuse) was 13.3%, down from 14.9% the year before, with no significant difference between men and women. Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 states that: The Secretary of State shall in each year publish such information as they consider expedient for the purpose of facilitating the performance of those engaged in the administration of justice to avoid discriminating against any persons on the ground of race or sex or any other improper ground. However, this was lower than the proportion of pupils achieving this attainment level for the overall pupil population (including both offenders and non-offenders) in 2013/14[footnote 99] and 2014/15[footnote 100] (99% for young females and 98% for young males). The proportion of convicted offenders who were female was 27% in 2019 and has remained stable over the last 5 years. Among children, 7.9% of males reported crimes against the person in 2019/20, significantly more than females did (3.7%). The difference was greatest amongst those receiving fines, where a greater proportion of young females attained this level (22%) than the young male group (15%). Offenders with 1 to 14 previous cautions or convictions accounted for 51% of all offenders in 2019, 86% were male, compared to 14% who were female. A lower proportion of females paid their PNDs in full (47%) compared to males (51%) and had a slightly higher proportion of fines registered (36% compared to 35%). Youth Custody report for June 2013 published. Penalty Notices for Disorder (PND)[footnote 32] issued. The proportion of all young offenders in the matched cohort that achieved 5 or more GCSEs (or equivalents) graded A* to C, including English and Maths, was slightly higher for the young female group, at 12%, compared to 10% for young males. . In 2018/19, 12,300[footnote 30] young people engaged with liaison and diversion services, of which 19% were female. Statistics show that women are awarded child custody in nearly 90 percent of all cases. Figure 5.08: Median number of days from offence to completion, by offence group and sex, 2019. There are few comparisons to the population as a whole, but we have considered this to be 51% female, as based on Mid-year Population Estimates from the Office for National Statistics. When split by sex, larger percentage decreases were seen over the last 5 years for female adults (25%) and children (31%) compared to males (21% and 26% respectively). A higher proportion of males were proceeded against for indictable offences (22%) compared to females (10%). A higher proportion of young females were suspected as having issues with alcohol misuse, were identified at risk of suicide, self-harm or harm through personal neglect and in need of accommodation, education, employment or training. Ethnic minority groups accounted for a higher proportion of prosecutions against males compared to females. Further information on the following topics related to offender management is available online: Substance Misuse Treatment Programmes, Offender Learning, Safety in Custody, Deaths in or following police contact, Discipline in Prison Establishments (Adjudications), Restricted Patients, Home Detention Curfew, Release on Temporary License, Licence Recalls. The analysis in this report addresses the key subject areas and goes some way to provide an evidence base for monitoring progress and aiding policy making decisions for the future. Offenders with 15 or more previous cautions or convictions. Well send you a link to a feedback form. GillespieShields. This is reflected in the higher proportion of females remanded in custody who were sentenced to immediate custody at magistrates court, 17% in 2019 compared to 13% for males. There was also a higher proportion of females with mental health needs, the majority of which were depressive illness which affected 25% of females compared to 20% of males. , Caution should be taken when comparing figures for senior staff, however, because the numbers of individuals represented are small - changing a single case could have a noticeable effect. , Fixed period exclusion refers to a pupil who is excluded from a school for a set period of time. Child Custody Statistics by Gender Who is most likely to be a custodial parent? Custody Rate and Average Custodial Sentence Length (ACSL)[footnote 83]. There is a glossary that explains the definition of each disposal in the technical guide, along with a summary of the data share. , Where sex is known. The proportion of female children remanded in custody (17%) was lower than male children (48%). In 2019, 74% of those convicted for TV licence evasion were female. , Individuals with known sex. This chapter reports on the trends in the composition of staff and practitioners throughout the criminal justice system (CJS) by sex. At 53%, oral fast delivery PSRs[footnote 53] were more common, especially for females (females 60%, males 52%), while standard PSRs[footnote 54], which are given for more serious offences, were much less common and were given proportionally more often to male offenders (4%) compared with female offenders (1%). , This section looks at persons only and excludes those where sex is not stated. In 2019, 13% of females were cautioned or convicted as first time offenders for theft offences, compared with 7% of males. The proportion of female legal aid recipients in the Crown Court was lower with 10% of the crime higher legal aid workload in 2019[footnote 42]. This chapter explores outcomes for defendants in the Criminal Justice System (CJS) predominantly drawing on data from the Criminal Justice Statistics quarterly: December 2019 publication. Youth custody data for June 2017 published. Youth custody data for June 2016 published. , Data for offending history includes both indictable and summary offences - unless otherwise stated. In 2019, 86% of female offenders were sentenced to a fine with an average fine of 230, compared to 72% of male offenders with an average fine of 302. It has not been possible to accurately replicate the existing methodology and produce robust estimates in time for this release following changes to the way that data are recorded. Females also consistently had a higher guilty plea rate for indictable offences. For example, data on arrests are presented in financial years, while data from courts is presented in calendar years. Similar falls have been seen in the number of defendants prosecuted over the last 5 years when broken down by sex; the number of prosecutions for male defendants fell by 11% to 904,000 in 2019 and prosecutions for female defendants fell by 12% to 324,000 in 2019. Of those remanded in custody at Crown Court in 2019, 76% of male offenders were sentenced to immediate custody compared to 60% of females. In 2019/20, violence against the person and theft offences accounted for the largest proportion of arrests for both males and females. , The cautioning rate is the number of offenders who were given a caution divided by the number who were either cautioned or convicted (excluding summary motoring offences). Youth custody data for April 2018 published. The main source of referral was the police, accounting for 60% of male and 68% of female young people. The disparity in convictions for these offences may reflect the fact that females make up a slightly larger proportion of benefit claimants[footnote 118]. Youth custody report and data for February 2018 published. The median time from charge for first listing decreased for females (down 12%) but increased for males (up 15%). In 2019/20, sexual assault towards females within the last year were over 4 times higher than towards males. Figure 3.01: Percentage of adults who were victims of personal crime, by type, year ending March 2019. In the 2019/20 HM Inspectorate of Prisons survey, females reported significantly more negative results for questions related to problems on arrival at prison. When comparing sentencing outcomes for male and female offenders, a consistently larger proportion of male offenders receive custodial sentences whereas larger proportions of female offenders receive community sentences or a conditional discharge. This was higher than the proportion of pupils eligible for FSM in the overall pupil population (including both offenders and non-offenders) in 2013/14 and 2014/15 (14% for both young females and young males). This was considerably lower than the proportion of pupils achieving this attainment level for the overall pupil population (including both offenders and non-offenders) in 2013/14[footnote 96] and 2014/15[footnote 97] (93% for young females and 90% for young males). The proportion of ineffective and cracked trials was higher for females (20% and 37%) than males (16% and 33%) in 2019. Report and data for March 2018 published. Females were typically dealt with for less severe offences at court. For both young males and young females in the matched cohort, those who were sentenced to custody for 12 months or less had the lowest proportion attaining 5 or more GCSEs (or equivalents) graded A* to G. Figure 7.08 shows that across most disposal types, a greater proportion of young females attained this level than young males. Reference will usually be made to children by which we refer to individuals aged 10 to 17 years of age[footnote 80][footnote 81]. A higher proportion of female offenders were first time offenders, compared to males. A BBC report suggested that in 2011 men accounted for just 8% of the UK's single parents. In 2019, a smaller proportion of female offenders were sentenced for indictable offences at 10%, compared to 22% of male offenders. The following section discusses child offenders at different stages of the Criminal Justice System. , Where ethnicity was known. Of all female offenders cautioned or convicted in 2019, 35% were first time offenders, compared to 22% for males. The HMPPS Offender Equalities report 2019/20 (released on the same day as this report) also includes information on: Mother and Baby units, Sexual Orientation in the Prison Population, Accredited Programmes, Incentives and Earned Privileges and Electronic Monitoring. Females in contact with the services more often had suspected alcohol misuse, financial needs, were abuse victims and had mental health needs compared to males. Overall personal crime rates decreased significantly between 2018/19 and 2019/20. In 2019, females accounted for the highest proportion of Local Authority prosecutions for the first time since 2016. The number of individuals formally dealt with by the CJS includes defendants prosecuted at magistrates court and individuals given a caution or Penalty Notice for Disorder (PND). Figure 7.05: Proportion of children in the Criminal Justice System, by sex, England and Wales, 2019. Young females who were sentenced to custody for more than 12 months had a 73% proportion with SEN without a statement compared to 65% for young males. Over the last 5 years, there have been increases in female representation across almost all CJS organisations and in the proportion of senior staff. Violent crime was reported by a higher proportion of males (2.1%) than females (1.4%) in 2018/19. Detail how users will be informed of the need for revisions. This analysis compares the genders in the matched young offender cohort, broken down by disposal, educational attainment, pupil characteristics, persistent absence and exclusion. , Bespoke analysis from the 2019-20 Her Majestys Inspectorate of Prisons (HMIP) annual report can be found in the chapter tables, published alongside this report. In the most recent year, females had a higher average number of reoffences per reoffender (also known as the frequency rate) compared to males, at 4.33 and 3.99, respectively. , 3% of young people identified as intersex or did not disclose this information. In 2019, 15% of males and 17% females elected to be tried at the Crown Court. The overall cautioning rate has been gradually decreasing over the last 5 years, from 18% in 2015 to 11% in 2019, and has been consistently lower for females than males, at 7% for females and 11% for males in 2019. The overall child conviction ratio for indictable offences remained broadly stable since 2015, at 70%. Females reported that it was harder for family and friend to visit them in prison (this may be due to there being fewer female prisons so the average distance from home is greater). For both sexes, the 30 to 39 age range represented the highest number of those prosecuted in 2019. The largest difference between genders in proportions of persistent absence was seen for those who were dealt with by a community penalty. My wife has confessed that when she first learned I was a single dad she automatically presumed that mum had died! Little is known, however, about child custody evaluators beliefs, background, knowledge about domestic violence, and other factors that may shape their recommendations1 regarding custody and parent-child visitation arrangements. Publish a time-series of revisions due to errors in our statistical processes and procedures so we can monitor the quality of our outputs. However, given the range of recording practises (see technical guide for details) throughout the CJS, it is likely that most recording includes a mixture of physiological and personal identity. , This is not including the 96 victims of the Hillsborough disaster in 2016/17, where 89 were male and 7, female. A greater proportion of female offenders are sentenced for offences that tend to receive shorter sentences. , Figures from this paragraph are sourced from the data underpinning the Criminal Court Statistics (annual): January to March 2020 bulletin. Across all disposals, a larger proportion of young males had a record of receiving a fixed period exclusion compared to young females. For each offence, the proportion of those who were sentenced to immediate custody was lower for female offenders than for males. If you have any feedback about the changes referred to in the introduction, or the report more generally, please contact the production team through the Justice Statistics Analytical Services division of the Ministry of Justice: We use some essential cookies to make this website work. , Persistent absence is when a pupil enrolments overall absence equates to 10 per cent or more of their possible sessions. Just over a quarter (26%) of all prosecutions were for female defendants in 2019, which has remained stable over the last 5 years. These data comes from the Child Support Supplement to the April 2018 Current Population Survey (CPS). The majority of female homicides took place in or around a house/dwelling (71%), whereas only 39% of male homicides took place here. Criminal legal aid consists of legal advice and representation provided to people being investigated or charged with a criminal offence, covering police stations, prisons, and the courts. It will take only 2 minutes to fill in. Defendants with sex not stated accounted for 10% of all court proceedings in 2019, companies and public bodies accounted for 1%. This proportions differ from the total prison population, which were 95% and 5% respectively. Dont worry we wont send you spam or share your email address with anyone. Of the cases where the sex of the individual being detained was recorded, 45% were female and 55% were male. This difference is likely to be linked to the greater seriousness of offences typically dealt with at the Crown Court. Figure 5.03: Number of defendants proceeded against at magistrates courts, by offence type and sex, 2015 to 2019. The conviction ratio has been consistently higher for female offenders over the last 5 years, and was 88% in 2019, compared to 87% for males. Young females had higher levels of FSM eligibility across all disposals, except for fines, compared to young males. in the 14 years to March 2019, the number of young people in youth custody went down in every ethnic group. , A single individual (includes people and companies) can be counted more than once in a year if they are dealt with by the CJS on more than one occasion. In 2019/20, 27.6% of females aged 16-74 reported being victims of domestic abuse once or more since age 16, double that of males (13.8%)[footnote 17]. Britain has the highest proportion of fatherless families (2 million) of any major European country. In 2019, the number of individuals who self-harmed per 1,000 prisoners was 335 for females and 148 for males[footnote 67]. Similar proportions are seen in convictions. The conviction ratio for female children in 2019 was 67%, 4 percentage points lower than in 2015 and 3 percentage points lower than the male child conviction ratio (70%) in 2019. Other sources in this chapter include Criminal Courts Statistics and Legal Aid Statistics. Remands at magistrates court followed similar trends to police remands over the last 5 years, with lower proportions of female defendants bailed or remanded in custody. In 2019, 15% of the total crime lower legal aid workload was for female clients and this proportion has remained stable over the last 5-year period[footnote 41]. Youth custody statistics for October 2013 published. This proportion was 5 percentage points lower than the proportion of adult females that were prosecuted for indictable offences, at 15%. Cannabis warnings and community resolutions will not be considered when looking at out of court disposals because they are not recorded by sex. Figure 6.03: Number of Self-harm individuals in prison per 1,000 prisoners by sex, 2015 to 2019. Figure 8.01: The proportion of male and female offenders prosecuted for each offence group, England and Wales, 2019. Senior police officers increased their female representation to 27% in 2020, from 23% five years ago. , Questions on the offence category Causing sexual activity without consent were removed from the CSEW 2019/20, therefore the total category of any sexual assault (including attempts) no longer includes this category. 4% of crime higher legal aid clients had an unstated sex. , Published figures for probation can be found in Offender Management Statistics quarterly. When a suspect is formally charged, they are brought before a magistrates court (as a defendant) as soon as possible. , Source: GCSE and equivalent attainment by pupil characteristics: 2014 - National and local authority tables: Table 1, Source: GCSE and equivalent results in England: 2014 to 2015 (revised) Characteristics national tables: Table CH1: GCSE and equivalent entries and achievements of pupils and the end of key stage 4 by pupil characteristics. Well send you a link to a feedback form. The publication aims to help practitioners, policy makers, academics and members of the public understand trends in the CJS in England and Wales, and how these vary between the sexes and over time. The largest percentage difference is for drug offences which have a median offence to completion that is 47% higher (49 days) for females in comparison to males. Custodial Mothers and Fathers and Their Child Support: 1999 October 2002 In the spring of 2000, an estimated 13.5 million parents had custody of 21.7 million children under 21 years of age whose other parent lived somewhere else. 62.9% of custodial fathers are non-Hispanic white men. The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of what child custody evaluators and Additionally, men are awarded less support on average than mothers who are awarded support. According to the Pew Research study, when fathers and children live separately 22% of fathers see their children more than once a week. The 75+ group was the only age group where prevalence of violent crime in highest among females. Youth custody data - October data published. The overall levels of attainment for the cohort are slightly higher for the young female group, with 46% achieving 5 or more GCSEs (or equivalents) graded A* to G, including English and Maths, compared to 43% for young males. Between 2015 and 2019 there was a rise in proportion of defendants electing to be tried at the Crown Court, up 7 percentage points for females and 8 percentage points for males. In homicides where the principal suspect was known to the victim, 67% of cases with female victims suspected the partner/ex-partner. In accordance with Principle 2 of the Code of Practice for Official Statistics, the Ministry of Justice is required to publish transparent guidance on its policy for revisions. , Only two sentence length categories have been used for analysis of the MoJ-DfE data due to small volumes when the data is broken down. , Offenders whose sex was unknown were excluded from all analyses in this section, which might lead to very small inconsistencies with other published statistics on offenders. , Department of Work and Pensions benefits statistics. Youth custody report for August 2015 published. All data refers to this age group throughout the section, unless stated otherwise. Fines accounted for 99% of those sentenced for TV licence evasion in 2019 across both sexes. , Data is from CSEW 2019 annual supplementary tables. Males were serving longer custodial sentence lengths. In June 2019, the number of children and young people up to 18 years old in secure estates[footnote 61] was 885, of which 3% were female. Self-harm in prison custody is defined as any act where a prisoner deliberately harms themselves irrespective of the method, intent or severity of any injury. In the last 5 years, females consistently had a higher proportion of prisoners who self-harmed and a higher number of instances of self-harm per 1,000 prisoners[footnote 66]. , Please note that the spacing of the time period displayed does not align with the actual time scale, for example the time between sentenced to custody for 0-1 month is smaller than 6 to 12 months. In the same year, 51.7% of adults perceived the Criminal Justice System as effective; this did not significantly differ between sexes. These proportions have remained constant over the last 5 years. There are also sections covering statistics on out of court disposals which come from the Criminal Justice Statistics Quarterly: December 2019, published by the Ministry of Justice, and experimental pilot data from national Liaison and Diversion services, as supplied by NHS England. To help us improve GOV.UK, wed like to know more about your visit today. Other defendants such as companies and public bodies are also excluded. Figure 7.02 Conviction ratios for indictable offences by sex and ethnic group, England and Wales, 2019. Statistics show that women are awarded child custody in nearly 90 percent of all cases. Youth custody data for December 2015 published. A 2.6 pp increase over the last five years brought female representation among in-post police officers up to 31% in 2019. Between 2015 and 2019, female children saw the largest decline, a decrease of 35% in prosecutions, compared to a 29% decrease for male children that were prosecuted over the same period. Following changes to the administrative systems at the Crown Court that completed in September 2019, estimates of defendants representation status at the Crown Court are not available for this release. Figure 7.08: Proportion of young offenders who finished Key Stage 4 in either 2013/14 or 2014/15 that achieved 5 or more GCSEs (or equivalents) graded A* to G by gender and disposal category[footnote 98] (Source: Table 7.1). Prison population figures are from the Offender Management Statistics quarterly bulletin and are averaged across 12 months. Key Child Custody Statistics 2023 Approximately 29% of child custody decisions are made without mediators or court hearings. Of the 34,300 defendants convicted for shoplifting, 9,600 (28%) were female. Youth custody data for January 2017 published. The number of arrests has remained stable over the last 3 years following a previously downward trend. First time offenders accounted for 24% of offenders who were cautioned or convicted In England and Wales in 2019, of which 78% were male and 22% females[footnote 88].

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