rajatarangini was translated into persian byrajatarangini was translated into persian by

He wrote the work in Sanskrit between 1148 and 1149. Sanskrit is a Indo-Aryan part of the Indo-European dialects. The most glorious period of the Lodi Dynasty was the ruling period of Sikander Lodi. university presses. The broad valley of Kashmir, also spelled Cashmere[2] is almost completely surrounded by the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range. Built a great city called Srinagara (near but not same as the modern-day. Sultan Shihabud-din did not have a large number of soldiers to battle against the Kashgar army. 1 Who translated Rajatarangini in Kashmiri? Because of the rising Buddhist influence, people stopped following the Shaivite, Gonanda III founded a new dynasty. Cite earlier authors: The oldest extensive works containing the royal chronicles [of Kashmir] have become fragmentary in consequence of [the appearance of] Suvrata's composition, who condensed them in order that (their substance) might be easily remembered. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. Son of Jayapida and Durgi. We also know about the person who built Alai Darwaza and much more about the topic. In that officials, Abdul Fazi translated Ramayana into Persian. Answer: [C] Jonaraja Notes: Sultan Sikandar established a department to translate Sanskrit works into Persia and vice versa in Kashmir. Owing to a certain want of care, there is not a single part in Ksemendra's "List of Kings" (Nrpavali) free from mistakes, though it is the work of a poet. Answer. Uchchala's step-brother; became the king after Radda's death. If you are already a registered user of The Hindu and logged in, you may continue to engage with our articles. For 56 years, The Journal of Asian Studies has been Established the city of. According to the historical evidence, Lalitaditya Muktapida ruled during the 8th century. The king imprisoned Toramana, when the latter stuck royal coins in his own name. In his old age, the childless king ordered killing of Sandhimati to prevent any chance of him becoming a king. The cookie is set by GDPR cookie consent to record the user consent for the cookies in the category "Functional". Such striking historical details aside, the preeminent fact is that Kalhanas is a literary text of extraordinary merit. According to Jonaraja, Shah Mir was the descendant of Partha (Arjuna) of Mahabharata fame. It was translated into Persian by the orders of the later Muslim ruler Zain-ul-Abidin. Eleven works of former scholars containing the chronicles of the kings, I have inspected, as well as the [Purana containing the] opinions of the sage Nila. During the reign of Zain-ul-Abideen, the eighth Sultan of Kashmir, Mulla Ahmad translated Kalhana's Rajatarangini into Persian. Rajatarangini (The River of Kings) is a metrical historical chronicle of north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir, written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri Brahman Kalhana in 12th century CE. Kashmira Kerala paryanthaamganatantrenashasssitam, Rakshayantujanaasarve, ekachhatramimaammaheem (From Kashmir to Kerala extending and governed by democracy, may all the people protect this lands sovereign unity). There are four English translations of Rjatarangi by: Ranjit Sitaram Pandit Book VII brings the narrative to the death of King Harsha (1101), and Book VIII deals with the stormy events between the death of Harsha and the stabilization of authority under Kalhanas contemporary Jayasimha (reigned 112849). [31] Arriving in Kashmir, Haidar installed as sultan the head of the Sayyid faction, Nazuk. Kavya as a genre has had a prominent place in traditional Malayalam poetics, so the austere aesthetics of Kalhanas work will strike a chord with readers, particularly those with a yen for that stimulating mixture of Sanskrit and Malayalam of yore, termed Manipravala. His queen eloped with a Buddhist monk, so he destroyed the Buddhist monasteries and gave their land to the Brahmins. In principle, it is for three reasons, specifically, the texts regard to sequence, causation, and (affirmed) objectivity, that European Orientalist researchers who concentrated on the text from the mid-nineteenth century onwards, called the Rajatarangini the solo work of history legitimate to rise out of old India. He abdicated the throne, and a became a hermit to seek peace. . Deposed by Tantrin soldiers, who had earlier served as the royal bodyguards. It does not store any personal data. Zain-ul-Abidin was the eighth sultan of Kashmir. His customary applied system, involving careless presumptions and faith in the artists job as a type of moral sayings, makes the glorifying content in his story, especially for the early period, rather predominant. These cookies track visitors across websites and collect information to provide customized ads. a 12th century CE writer can be a piece essential in understanding the historical backdrop of Kashmir. [clarification needed], From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core, Koenraad Elst: Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate 1999, https://infogalactic.com/w/index.php?title=Rajatarangini&oldid=559022, Articles needing expert attention with no reason or talk parameter, Articles needing expert attention from November 2008, Articles with disputed statements from March 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. 1 View Answer As the result of the decline in linguistic oriented approaches, Translation Studies witnessed a move towards a more descriptive and cultural direction in the 1990s. In this backdrop, the Malayalam translation called Get all the important information related to the Railway Exam including the process of application, important calendar dates, eligibility criteria, exam centers etc. Let us know more about Rajatarangini. Son of Lalitaditya and Kamaladevi. that Shah Mir traced his descent to Arjuna, the basis of their account being Jonarajas Rajatarangini was composed by Kalhana, scion of a noble family of Kashmir. Request Permissions. rajatarangini of kalhana vol iv - dr. raghunath singh_part3, rajatarangini of kalhana vol ii - dr. raghunath singh_part3, rajatarangini - shri ramtej shastri pandey_part3. Later, in the time of Firuz, Sanskrit books on medicine and music were translated into Persian. Kalhana's work uses Kali and Laukika (or Saptarishi) calendar eras: the ascension year in CE, as given below, has been calculated by Dutt based on Kalhana's records. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Analytics". Thus (IV.678) is Book IV verse 678. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. This seems to be official genealogy of the Sultanate. The work consists of 7826 verses, which are divided into eight books called Tarangas (waves). Sandhimati remained in prison for 10years. His short reign was marked by a succession struggle with his half-brother Vajraditya II. The book has a magisterial Foreword by Puthezhath Raman Menon, a considerable figure in Malayalam literature and a contemporary of the translator. Taking action accordingly, regardless of initiating Kalhana an extraordinary student of history, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar2 discussed his exceptionally faulty strategy comprising in consideration of legendary or amazing lords, an ignorant religiosity in the Epics and Puranas (antiquated Indian kinds portraying the previous), confidence in black magic and sorcery, clarification of occasions as because of the impact of destiny instead of to any normal reason, an overall instructional propensity roused by Hindu perspectives on karma, and simple showcase of poetical and logical expertise. Romila Thapar additionally excused Kalhanas moralism and teaching. This quarterly has been published regularly since This article examines two translations of the textone "Orientalist" and the other "nationalist"with the purpose of interrogating these categories, by drawing out the complex engagement between European and indigenous ideas, and the dialogue between past and present that informed their production. Youngest son of Vajradjtya II. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Other. The famous story of Nala and Damayanti was also rendered into Persian by Faizi and was . His admittance to minute subtleties of contemporary court interests was practically immediate: his dad and uncle were both in the Kashmir court. Learn about a brief history of Adi Shankaracharya, one of the most revered teachers in India's spiritual history. He was said to belong to the family of an ancestor called Partha, who was described as a second Partha (an allusion to the Mahabharata hero Arjuna). How do people make money on survival on Mars? It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri historian Kalhana in the 12th century CE. Rajatarangini (Sanskrit: Waterway of Kings) recorded a narrative of early India reasonably viewed as awesome and the best work. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. the Kambojs If you do not have an account please register and login to post comments. The minister was persecuted, and ultimately imprisoned because of rumors that he would succeed the king. Belonged to a different family from Lava's dynasty (I.95), Known for constructing a canal named Suvarnamani, Great-grandson of Shakuni and son of Shachinara's first cousin. translator of the Rajataragini. Contextual translation of "poyu ta" from Persian into Tagalog. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. During Akbar's time the Ramayana and Mahabharata were also translated into Persian. The cookies is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Necessary". Qutbuddin died and was succeeded by his son Sultan Sikander also known as the Sikander Butshikand. In recent years, it has developed its strongest reputation it was brilliantly prepared for the work. Salhana was deposed and imprisoned. He was a devout Shaivite, and his reign was marked by peace. It covers the entire span of history in the Kashmir region from the earliest times to the date of its composition. [4] It has also been suggested that he belonged to a family which accompanied the sage Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, and who were associated to either the Kubrawiya Sufi groups in Kashmir. Kalhana states that Lalitaditya Muktapida conquered the tribes of the north and after defeating the. To avoid this outcome, the king married his daughter Anangalekha to Durlabhavardhana, a handsome but non-royal man from Ashvaghama. Published online by Cambridge University Press: And for another, Sarvagnana Peetha in Srinagar where Shankaracharya was enthroned is the one mystic chord of tradition that has endured in the Keralite imagination of Kashmir. [19], Jonaraja and later Muslim chroniclers accuse Sikandar of terminating Kashmir's longstanding syncretic culture by persecuting Pandits and destroying numerous Hindu shrines; Suhabhat a Brahman neo-convert and Sikandar's Chief Counsel is particularly blamed for having instigated him. Mahabharata, Ramayana, Atharva Veda, Lilawati, Rajatarangini translated into Persian. According to the Mahabharata, the Kambojs ruled Kashmir during the epic period (The epic period is estimated to be roughly from 1000 to 600 BC, when some of the greatest epics such as; Ramayana and Mahabharata, came into being during this time). We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. (Arjuna) of Mahabharata fame. [8] Aryarajas were mostly Hindus. The first translation of a portion of the Rajatarangini was carried out in Persian, at the behest of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin (1421-1472) A.D of Kashmir. There are four English translations of Rjatarangi by: A television series based on Rajatarangini named Meeras was begun in 1986 in Doordarshan Srinagar. She was pregnant at the time of her husband's death, and Krishna helped her ascend the throne. Jonaraja Abul Fazl translated into Persian many outstanding Sanskrit works, such as, the. Like the Shahnameh is to Persia, the Rajatarangini is to Kashmir. [21] Even where the kings mentioned in the first three books are historically attested, Kalhana's account suffers from chronological errors. Sanskrit works on medicine and music were also translated into Persian at his instance. . This article examines two translations of the textone Orientalist and the other nationalistwith the purpose of interrogating these categories, by drawing out the complex engagement between European and indigenous ideas, and the dialogue between past and present that informed their production. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Answer: It is court chronicle that deals with the history of rulers of Kashmir. He dug profound into such model functions as the Harshacharita and the Brihat-Samhita sagas and utilised with a praiseworthy commonality the neighbourhood rajakathas (regal accounts) and such past chips away at Kashmir as Nripavali by Kshemendra, Parthiva Wali by Helaraja, and Nilamatapurana. Kalhana lived in a time of political turmoil in Kashmir, at that time a brilliant center of civilization in a sea of barbarism. Expelled several irreligious Brahmins who used to eat garlic (non-. Notes in parentheses refer to a book ("Taranga") and verse. No examples found, consider adding one please. The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India, founded by, After a Damodara ("of Ashoka's kula or another"), we have Hushka, Jushka and Kanishka (127147 CE) of the. Arthashastra , one of the first in the history of Malayalam literature. Son of Durlabhaka and Shrinarendraprabha. Kalhana wrote it was brilliantly prepared for the work. [18] Waqfs were endowed to shrines, mosques were commissioned, numerous Sufi preachers were provided with jagirs and installed in positions of authority, and feasts were regularly held. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously. The kings of Kashmir described in the Rajatarangini are given below. Verse 15. TranslationsRajatarangini was translated into Persian by Zain-ul-Abidin order.There are four English translations of Rjatarangi by: Ranjit Sitaram Pandit Horace Hayman Wilson, secretary of The Asiatic Society of Bengal in the early 19th century, and the first English. } Zain ul Abidin, a 15th century ruler of Kashmir, appointed scribes to translate the Mahabharata and Kalhana's Rajatarangini into Persian with the aim that these translations would give an insight into Hindu philosophy and culture to the rest of the world. [19][21] Scholars caution against accepting the allegations at face value and attributing them solely to religious bigotry. He brought back the Brahmans who had fled from Kashmir following the treachery of Mirza. The actual power was in hands of Jayadevi's brothers Padma, Utpalaka, Kalyana, Mamma and Dharmma. Uninvolved by and by in the frenzy of contemporary legislative issues, he was significantly impacted by it and expressed the accompanying. 2 What was the name of Persian translation of Rajatarangini? He filled his court with, Shreshtasena (Pravarasena I / Tungjina II), According to Kalhana, the emperor Vikramditya (alias Harsha) of, Younger brother of Vikramaditya. Uninvolved by and by in the frenzy of contemporary legislative issues, he was significantly impacted by it and expressed the accompanying. Made king by the minister Shura. European Orientalist researchers who concentrated on the text from the mid-nineteenth century onwards called the Rajatarangini the solo work of history legitimate to rise out of old India. elsewhere. Eventually the Karkota dynasty ended and a grandson of Utpala became king. He was known for his religious tolerance. Hostname: page-component-7fc98996b9-5r7zs He subdued several enemies. In our own time, the Kashmiri Sanskrit scholar and former diplomat A.N.D. Kalhana states that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake. Historian A. Q. Rafiqi states that some Persian chronicles of Kashmir describe Shah Mir as a descendant of the rulers of Swat. He reigned for three years and five months from 1339 to 1342 CE. Rajatarangini ("The River of Kings") is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western part of India, particularly the kings of Kashmir. 2011 Duke University Press According to Kalhana, Ashoka reigned before 1182 BCE, and was a member of the dynasty founded by Godhara. (Stay up to date on new book releases, reviews, and more with The Hindu On Books newsletter. Nevertheless, multiple scholars identify Kalhana's Ashoka with the Mauryan emperor Ashoka. He delved deep into such model works as the Harsacarita and the Brihat-samhita epics and used with commendable familiarity the local rajakathas (royal chronicles) and such previous works on Kashmir as Nripavali by Kshemendra, Parthivavali by Helaraja, and Nilamatapurana. 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